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Page 13
Decrease arrhythmias
Decrease triglycerides
Slow rate of plaque and blood clot formation
Lower blood pressure
Reduce inflammation
Omega-6 eicosanoids
• Cause inflammaon and constricon of blood vessels, poly unsaturated fay acids, first
double bond aſter the 6 carbon, essenal, found in:
Omega-3 eicosanoids
• Reduce inflammaon and smulate dilaon of blood vessels, poly unsaturated fay acids,
first double bond aſter the 3 carbon essenal, found in:
Eicosanoids: hormone like structure
Linoleic acid: 18:2
Arachidonic: 20:4
EPA and DHA are made from omega 3 FA- healthful
Condionally essenal infants- DHA (important for NS development, fetal rena
Triglyceride: three fay acid aached to glycerol
Source of energy or cal, fay foods, fat is stored in adipose in this form.
Phospholipids: 2 FA, 3
is replaced by P and choline
Contain phosphorus, makes up the structure of your cell membrane
Sterol: cholesterol
Mulringed, waxy- in animal foods
Cis double bonds: H on the same side as the double bond causes a kink in the structre of the
carbon chain, liquid at room temp
Trans double bond: H on opposite side as the double bond
Solid at room temp
Naturally- dairy and beef
Hydrogenaon(adding hydrogen): changed structure of unsaturated fat and made it a
trans fat, act like a trans fat, last longer on the shelf,
Rancid- decomposed oils (unpleasant odor, and flavor)- poly or mono unsaturated
Protects against oxidaon
PUFA more suscepble--- parally hydrogenated solid(cookies, pastries)
Processing to solidify FA forms trans fay acid

Page 14
Trans FA intake
Increase risk for cardiovascular disease
Increase inflammaon
No health roles
Required on food labels
PHO- parally hydrogenated oils
Minimize intake of: deep fried foods, non- dairy creamers, crackers, cookies, microwave
popcorn, bakery products, shortening, and margarine
Excess triglycerides: insulin smulates (store excess energy or use the glucose), storage in
adipocyte(visceral- in or abdomen or thorax , subcutaneous- under skin), protect and store
energy, insulate
Emulsifier: allows to products to be mixed together
Sterols: cholesterol(animals) and plant sterols
Cholesterol: body produces it, is important as a precursor to bile acids
Component of plaque associated with heart disease
Phytosterols: posive effects(lower blood cholesterol- interferes with absorpon—so
does fiber), found in corn, wheat, and rye
Benecol and Take Control margarines (1-2 servings per day)
Blood lipoproteins: carries around chol. HDL and LDL
Dietary chol:
Lipids: hydrophobic so must be transported by lipoproteins.
LDL: low density lipoprotein, carries substances mainly cholesterol “Bad”—want it low
Build up plaque (lay down chol)
Develop atherosclerosis
Vessel damage caused by: smoking, diabetes, hypertension, homocysteine, high
LDL, infecon.
HDL: high density lipoprotein, carries substances mainly protein
“good”—want it high
Removes cholesterol from blood
Reduces risk of heart disease
An-inflammatory properes
Increased by exercise
risk for heart disease:
High SFA(
fay acids
High (LDL)
Genecs and absorpon play a role
Overweight or obese
Healthy weight
Increase whole grain foods
Fiber & vitamins

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