BIOL_2222_Chapter_21_Learning_objectives_Fall_2018.docx_1.docx-BIOL 2222 Learning objectives Chapter 21—The
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Recall the eﬀector cells and state their function.
Helper T cells (CD4)
Activate B and cytotoxic T cells
Induce B and T cell proliferation
Activate macrophages, stimulate inﬂammation
Cytotoxic T cells (CD8)
Circulate blood and lymph
Class I MHC antigens
Kills infected body cells via perforins and granzymes
Triggers cell apoptosis
Regulatory T cells
Dampen immune response by secreting inhibitory chemicals
Explain the diﬀerence between a CD4 and a CD 8 T cell.
CD4 becomes helper/regulatory T cells and CD8 becomes cytotoxic T
They become active when they come into contact with a pathogen
Recall that T cells require the assistance of APCs in their clonal
Contrast Class I and Class II MHC and their
respective roles in T cell activation.
Class I (mostly all body cells)- display a lot of endongeous(but not
foreign ) antigens; activates CD8 cells. Directly getting activation of
Class II(found on APCs)- displays a lot of exogenous antigens; activate
CD4/helper T cells. Indirectly getting activation.
Outline the mechanism of clonal selection of a T cell (including the
role of cytokines).
Co-stimulation (molecule on the surface of APC. A way to have
a safeguard against self-cell attack)
Proliferation of activated T cell (eﬀector and memory cells)
Cytokines (assist with diﬀerentiation)
Enhance macrophage activity
Activated T cell proliferation
Describe the central role of helper T-lymphocytes in both the humoral
and cellular adaptive immune responses.
Describe how cytotoxic T-lymphocytes destroy pathogens via
perforins and granzymes.
Tc identiﬁes foreign antigens on MHC I proteins and
binds tightly to target cell.
Tc releases performis and granzymes
Performis molecules pores into membrane
Granzymes enter the via pores and trigger apoptosis
Do it again!
Kennesaw State University
Course Code: 2222
Course Name: Human Anatomy and Physiology II