Exam 3 Study Guide.docx-CHAPTER NINE STU...
Exam_3_Study_Guide.docx-CHAPTER NINE STUDY QUESTIONS • What
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Exam 3 Study Guide.docx-CHAPTER NINE STUDY QUESTIO...
Exam_3_Study_Guide.docx-CHAPTER NINE STUDY QUESTIONS • What
Exam 3 Study Guide.docx-CHAPTER NIN...
Exam_3_Study_Guide.docx-CHAPTER NINE STUDY QUESTIONS • What
Page 5
What are the two kinds of deafness and what is wrong in each?
Conducive or middle ear deafness:
cant conduct sound from the outside
Sensorineural deafness:
loss of hair cells that transduce
What cues do we use for sound localizaon?
Interaural level difference (ILD): how loud at which ear
Interaural Time Delay (ITD): when did it arrive at which ear
The vesbular organ has three semicircular canals that have otoliths and jelly-like fluid.
Using these, how do we detect the direcon of lt and the amount of acceleraon of
the head?
Directs compensatory movements of eye and helps maintain balance
What is moon sickness caused by?
Inner ears, eyes, skin, muscles get confused
The Somatosensory system is one of our mechanical senses.
What is it detecng?
Discriminave touch, deep pressure, cold, warmth, pain, itch, ckle, posion and
movement of the joints
What are three primary kinds of somatosensory receptors? What ion is used to trigger
an acon potenal? In what organ are they located? Hint: it is your largest organ…
Pain (nociceptors) , touch (tacle) , temperature (thermal)
In order for us to sense all of the different aspects of touch, we not only need different
kinds of receptors, but those receptors have to have special properes. Understand
these concepts and be familiar with the charts:
1. Receptors are tuned to certain types of touch
2. Have varying
recepve fields
Large vs. small recepve fields
at different rates
Slowly Adapng (SA) vs. Fast Adapng (FA)
The somatosensory informaon below the neck goes into the CNS via the
31 spinal nerves and each is associated with a dermatome. Areas of the
face are not innervated by the spinal nerves but instead by cranial nerves.
refers to the skin area connected to or innervated by a
single sensory spinal nerve and each spinal nerve has a sensory
component and a motor component and connects to a limited area of the
body (remember
Bell-Magendie law
The informaon going into the spinal cord makes its way to the brain and is processed
through some structures.
What are they?

Page 6
Pain and touch have different afferent pathways.
Does touch informaon ascend up
the spine on the ipsilateral side or the contralateral side?
What about pain and
temperature informaon? Since we know they both
are contralateral, they
both cross over at some point, but where/when?
As soon as they enter the spine or
when they get to the spinal medullary juncon?
DC/ML- touch informaon, crosses over at medulla
STT-pain, crosses over instantly at spinal chord
Don’t forget our friend, the homunculus for somatosensory input to the cortex as it
responds to different areas of the body.
Shows us: 1. How much cortex is devoted to an area of the body 2. That neighboring
regions of the body are nearby each other in the cortex
What neurotransmier is involved in mild pain? What about more intense pain?
neurotransmier can be used to “gate” or minimize pain?
Mild pain: glutamate
Intense pain: glutamate and substance P
“gate”: opioid receptors
There are both sensory and emoonal aspects to pain and each one smulates a
different part of the cortex.
What part of the cortex is involved for each?
Sensory: cortex
Emoonal: hypothalamus, amygdala, & cingulate cortex
We have many drugs for pain management. What are placebos and nocebos and how
do they work? How does capsaicin work? Where do cannabinoids work? Does morphine
work for thinner axons (dull pain) or thicker axons (sharp pain)?
: drug or other procedure with no pharamacological effect; decreases pain by
percepon by decreasing the brain’s emoonal response to pain percepon, not the
sensaon itself; decreases response in cingulate cortex but not in the somatosensory
: chemicals related to marijuana that block pain; act mainly in ther
periphery of the brain
: inhibits thinner axons (dull pain)
: releases substance P faster than cells can resynthesize it, so burning
sensaon, followed by decreased pain, also damages free nerve endings, another way to
“close the gate for the pain message”
Damaged or inflamed ssue releases histamine, NGF, other chemicals and those
chemicals help repair damage, but they also increase the number of Na+ gates in nearby
receptors, including free-nerve endings, so magnify acvaon of those receptors so can
cause more pain. Non-steroidal an-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) block release of those

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