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BIOL 102
Biology Now – 2018
Learn Before Lecture Worksheet-12
Chapter 9: Pigs to the Rescue (what genes are)
Answer the questions below as you read the narrative of the chapter.
Precise Cuts
1a. CRISPR is originally found in bacteria.
What is the funcon of the CRISPR DNA sequences in bacteria?
Examine Figure 9.6 carefully to answer the following 2 quesons:
1b. What are the 2 parts to the CRISPR-Cas9 system?
Guide RNA and CAS9
1c. When the 2 guide RNA components find the correct sequence (via base-pairing), What does the Cas9
component then do to the target DNA sequence?
WEBSITE: CRISPR
https://youtu.be/jAhjPd4uNFY
Answer the questions below as you watch this video.
HISTORY OF GENETIC ENGINEERING: GENETIC MODIFICATION (pause to answer the quesons)
2a. What was accomplished by selecve breeding the banana?
easy to peel, smaller seeds
2b. 1960’s: What was the goal of randomly bombarding organisms with radiaon?
to cause random
mutaons in the genec code
2c. When was the first genecally modified food created (the Flavr savr tomato)?
1994
THE OLDEST WAR ON EARTH:
(this is the science-y part – slow down and pause to answer the quesons as you go)
3a.
What are the two big benefits of the new technology CRISPR?
it takes a shorter amount of me to
conduct experiments; costs have shrunk by over 99.9%
3b. Phages are viruses that aack bacteria and kill the vast majority of those.
What do phages do when
they aack?
phages insert their own genec code into the bacteria and take them over to use as
factories
3c. For those bacteria that do survive, what is their most effecve an-virus defense?
t
hey save a part
of the virus DNA in their own genec code in a DNA archive called CRISPR
3d. If that virus aacks again, what does the bacterium do with the archived DNA?
the bacterium
makes an RNA copy of the DNA archive and creates a protein called CAS9
3e. What does CAS 9 do with the RNA copies?
scans every lile piece of DNA unl it finds the sample
from the archive
3f. When it finds an exact match to the archived DNA, what does the CAS 9 protein do to that viral DNA?
it cuts out the virus DNA, making it useless
THE CRISPR REVOLUTION (5:13)
4. How do we use CRISPER for our own purposes?
it programmable, we have the ability to edit live
cells
THE END OF DISEASE?
(5:58)


Page 2
BIOL 102
Biology Now – 2018
Learn Before Lecture Worksheet-12
5a. List the 3 examples of how CRISPR might help with medicine:
cut out the HIV virus out of living
cells; edit immune cells and make them beer cancer hunters; change single leer mutaons
associated with genec diseases, thus eliminang the genec disease
5b. Designer babies (engineering gametes or early embryos) – how is this different from the medical
examples above?
the genec changes are passed from parent to offspring
A FEW GRAINS OF SALT
(12:20)
6a. The narrator argues that we are already living in a world where humans reject non-perfect humans and
pre-select features based on our idea of what’s healthy.
What sorts of things are happening already?
tests for genec diseases or complicaons have been done in pregnant women
6b. What are some of the darker visions associated with CRISPR technology (they give 2)
could require
gene edits for everyone;
6c. Why does the narrator argue that banning genec engineering would be a mistake?
it would push
the science to places with fewer ethical standards