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Plebeians created a parallel organization of officials/cults that only addressed matters
specific to the plebs - did not affect rest of populus Romanus
Plebeians
Right to choose their own leaders - tribunes of the plebs
Cult site at the temple of ceres
Fall of Veii and the Sack of Rome
396 - Romans succeed in capturing the Etruscan city of Veii
387 - large army of Gauls defeated a Roman army
Gauls dominated the valley of Po River
End of 5th century - Etruscan cities north of the Apennines were hard-pressed by Gauls
Gauls
No urban culture and social + political organization
Political life centered on aristocratic families and their armed retainers
Prominent leaders could assemble large forces
Raid across Apennines
Greeks and Romans thought Gauls were uncivilized, warlike, predatory, and
expansionist
Marcus Furious Camillus - hero of the final war against Veii and recovery after the sack
of Rome
Dictator
Commanded the Roman army that captured Veii
Recovered the treasure that the Gauls had taken from the city
Reported to have had a central role in opening the highest offices to plebeians in
367 - crucial event in Struggle of Orders
Lecture notes
Foundation of the city: 753 BCE
Monarchy 753 BCE - 509 BCE
Republic 509 BCE - 27 BCE
Empire 27 BCE - 476 BCE
Royal exile
Lucretia’s husband said that monarchy should end
Organizes the mob in neighboring towns
The king is exiled and sent back to Etruria
New office in charge of Rome is the consulship - 2 consuls are elected: Lucius lunius
Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius collatinus in 509 BCE
Beginning of democracy: Roman republic
End of monarchy, Tarquinius Superbus exiled
Lucius lunius Brutus and Lucius Tarquinius collatinus - first consuls in 509 BCE
Consulship, an annual magistracy, shared by 2 people, the highest office in Rome


Page 4
Occasionally at times of crisis - DICTATORS were appointed in the place of consuls with
a “Master of Cavalry” as second in command
Dictator stayed in power for 6 months or however long emergency lasted
Italy in the 5th Century BCE
Struggles between Latium and neighboring tribunes continue: Volsci, Aequi, Etruscans
Another famous Roman who becomes a dictator to save Rome is Lucius Quinctius
Cincinnatus: he literally abandons the plough during farming to save Rome from the
Aequi and then returns to farming
SPQR
Senatus Populus Que Romanus - The senate and the roman people
Assemblies of citizens vote on magistracies; depending on what assembly
First Written Law 451-449 - Twelve Tables
2 commissions of 10 men (decemvirs) appointed to codify the statues
Tablets in bronze (or ivory) were set up in the Roman forum and displayed for the people
to read and memorize
Struggle of the Orders
order=class
Patricians vs plebians
Plebians = common people, but diverse group
Wealthy fams who claimed ancestral heritage from the time of the city’s
foundation, monopolized the magistracies and offices
Reasons for the conflict between patricians and plebeians
Food shortage
Quarrels over fields and boundaries
Warfare that devastates the fields
Plebeians leadership not as united at the patricians
Frequently used the “weapon” threat of secessions - a kind of strike during war;
secession would take place by the withdrawal of the plebs to a hill outside of Rome, until
their demands were met
Went on strike
494 BCE - first major gain after secession was the creation of the “tribunes of the plebs”
- a match to the “military tribunes” the patricians had
Tribunes protected individuals, proposed legislation
451-449 BCE - creation of the 12 tables
445 BCE marriage between patricians and plebeians
Beginning of the 4th century: a victory matched by defeat
396 BCE - romans sack the Etruscans city of Veii - make it Roman
Veii was the richest city of the Etruscans - very rich fields
Roman leader: Marcus Furius Camillus as dictator
391-387 BCE - Gauls come near Rome and they sack the city
Their leader is the fierce Brennus; romans pay him one thousand pounds weight
of gold


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