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Damage to host cells can occur directly or indirectly. Which of the following is (are) indirect
mechanisms that cause damage?
The exaggerated response of the immune system
E. coli
provides Vitamin K to the human while the human provides the necessary nutrients for
the survival of
E. coli
. Which term is used to describe this type of symbolic relationship?
Escherichia coli
cells producing bacteriocins are participating in _______
Microbial antagonism
Endotoxins are associated with which of the following?
The outer membrane of the cell wall of the Gram negative bacteria
Recognition of the proper host cell by an animal virus may be aided by the ________ of the
virus. In enveloped viruses, these structures project from the envelope whereas in naked viruses
they project from the protein coat.
Salmonella typhi
has the ability to persist within the gallbladder of humans while causing no
clinical symptoms. The infected individuals is still contagious and would be considered a
Chronic carrier
The protein subunits that assemble to form a capsid are…
What is the LD
A dose that will kill 50% of the test population
The rise in herd immunity within a population can directly attribute to
Proper host cell receptors are required for a virus to successfully attach and cause infection.
A disease in which a person contracts rabies virus after interaction with an infected racoon would
be referred to as _______ disease.

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The portion of the lipopolysaccharide that is toxic to the host is ______.
Lipid A
The most common method of transmitting a sexually transmitted disease (STD) is by
Direct Contact
Which of the following is a fomite?
A hypodermic needle
Which of the following requirement for infection is being fulfilled: Bacteria produce a
Causing damage
______ enhances fibrin blood clots, whereas ______ breaks them down.
Coagulase; streptokinase
An exotoxin that acts on the tissues of the nervous system is referred to as
Characteristics that a pathogen possesses that permits it to thrive and survive in a host is
Virulence factors
A _______ arises when an epidemic spreads worldwide.
Hemolysins are membrane-distributing toxins responsible for destroying red blood cells.
The biosynthesis stage of the double stranded DNA viruses is most like the hosts cellular
Naked viruses use _______ as a means for entry into the host cell whereas enveloped viruses use
______ as a means of entry.
Endocytosis; direct fusion and endocytosis