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Reciprocating engines operate on the basic principle of converting chemical energy (fuel)
into mechanical energy. This conversion occurs within the cylinders of the engine
through the process of combustion. The two primary reciprocating engine designs are the
spark ignition and the compression ignition. The spark ignition reciprocating engine has
served as the powerplant of choice for many years. In an effort to reduce operating costs,
simplify design, and improve reliability, several engine manufacturers are turning to
compression ignition as a viable alternative. Often referred to as jet fuel piston engines,
compression ignition engines have the added advantage of utilizing readily available and
lower cost diesel or jet fuel.
For reciprocating engines, illustrate proper engine operating procedures and analyze common
Outline the components of a typical fuel and oil system and their functions.
Explain proper management procedures for fuel and oil systems.
Describe the purpose and operating principles of typical flight instruments.
For primary flight instruments, give examples of redundancy and correctly interpret flight
instrument indications.
For auxiliary aircraft systems such as electrical, hydraulic, landing gear, autopilot, ice control,
pressurization, and oxygen; label the most important components and explain their functions.
Define airworthiness.
An Airworthiness Certificate is issued by a representative of the FAA after the aircraft
has been inspected, is found to meet the requirements of 14 CFR part 21, and is in
condition for safe operation. The Airworthiness Certificate must be displayed in the
aircraft so it is legible to the passengers and crew whenever it is operated. The
Airworthiness Certificate must remain with the aircraft unless it is sold to a foreign
Define each of the airworthiness inspections required for small (under 12,500 pounds) airplanes.
Any reciprocating engine or single-engine turbojet/ turbopropeller-powered small aircraft
(weighing 12,500 pounds or less) flown for business or pleasure and not flown for
compensation or hire is required to be inspected at least annually. The inspection shall be
performed by a certificated airframe and powerplant (A&P) mechanic who holds an
inspection authorization (IA) by the manufacturer of the aircraft or by a certificated and
appropriately rated repair station. The aircraft may not be operated unless the annual
inspection has been performed within the preceding 12 calendar months.
All aircraft under 12,500 pounds (except turbojet/ turbopropeller-powered multi-engine
airplanes and turbine powered rotorcraft), used to carry passengers for hire, must receive
a 100-hour inspection within the preceding 100 hours of time in service and must be
approved for return to service. Additionally, an aircraft used for flight instruction for hire,
when provided by the person giving the flight instruction, must also have received a 100-
hour inspection. This inspection must be performed by an FAA-certificated A&P

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