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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Page 1057
CHAP. 12
continues, their operating systems will have to be appreciably different from cur-
rent ones to handle all these demands. In addition, they must balance the power
budget and ‘‘keep cool.’’ Heat dissipation and power consumption are some of the
most important challenges even in high-end computers.
However, an even faster growing segment of the market is battery-powered
computers, including notebooks, tablets, $100 laptops, and smartphones. Most of
these have wireless connections to the outside world. They demand operating sys-
tems that are smaller, faster, more flexible, and more reliable than operating sys-
tems on high-end devices. Many of these devices today are based on traditional op-
erating systems like Linux, Windows and OS X, but with significant modification.
In addition, they frequently use a microkernel/hypervisor-based solution to manage
the radio stack.
These operating systems have to handle fully connected (i.e., wired), weakly
connected (i.e., wireless), and disconnected operation, including data hoarding be-
fore going offline and consistency resolution when going back online, better than
current systems. In the future, they will also have to handle the problems of mobil-
ity better than current systems (e.g., find a laser printer, log onto it, and send it a
file by radio). Power management, including extensive dialogs between the operat-
ing system and applications about how much battery power is left and how it can
be best used, will be essential. Dynamic adaptation of applications to handle the
limitations of tiny screens may become important. Finally, new input and output
modes, including handwriting and speech, may require new techniques in the oper-
ating system to improve the quality. It is likely that the operating system for a
battery-powered, handheld wireless, voice-operated computer will be appreciably
different from that of a desktop 64-bit 16-core CPU with a gigabit fiber-optic net-
work connection. And, of course, there will be innumerable hybrid machines with
their own requirements.
12.6.6 Embedded Systems
One final area in which new operating systems will proliferate is embedded
systems. The operating systems inside washing machines, microwave ovens, dolls,
radios, MP3 players, camcorders, elevators, and pacemakers will differ from all of
the above and most likely from each other. Each one will probably be carefully
tailored for its specific application, since it is unlikely anyone will ever stick a
PCIe card into a pacemaker to turn it into an elevator controller. Since all embed-
ded systems run only a limited number of programs, known at design time, it may
be possible to make optimizations not possible in general-purpose systems.
A promising idea for embedded systems is the extensible operating system
(e.g., Paramecium and Exokernel). These can be made as lightweight or heavy-
weight as the application in question demands, but in a consistent way across ap-
plications. Since embedded systems will be produced by the hundreds of millions,
this will be a major market for new operating systems.

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