Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos ...
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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Page 838
SEC. 10.8
Google code.
However, the implementation of Google’s proprietary code was
often not yet cleaned up, having dependencies on internal parts of the platform.
Often the platform did not even have facilities that Google’s proprietary code need-
ed in order to integrate well with it.
A series of projects were soon undertaken to
address these issues:
In 2009, Android version 2.0 introduced an architecture for third par-
ties to plug their own sync adapters into platform APIs like the con-
tacts database.
Google’s code for syncing various data moved to this
well-defined SDK API.
2. In 2010, Android version 2.2 included work on the internal design
and implementation of Google’s
proprietary code. This ‘‘great
unbundling’’ cleanly implemented many core Google services, from
delivering cloud-based system software updates to ‘‘cloud-to-device
messaging’’ and other background services, so that they could be de-
livered and updated separately from the platform.
3. In 2012, a new
Google Play services
application was delivered to de-
vices, containing updated and new features for Google’s proprietary
nonapplication services.
This was the outgrowth of the unbundling
work in 2010, allowing proprietary APIs such as cloud-to-device mes-
saging and maps to be fully delivered and updated by Google.
10.8.3 Design Goals
A number of key design goals for the Android platform evolved during its de-
1. Provide a complete open-source platform for mobile devices. The
open-source part of Android is a bottom-to-top operating system
stack, including a variety of applications, that can ship as a complete
2. Strongly support proprietary third-party applications with a robust
and stable API.
As previously discussed, it is challenging to maintain
a platform that is both truly open-source and also stable enough for
proprietary third-party applications.
Android uses a mix of technical
solutions (specifying a very well-defined SDK and division between
public APIs and internal implementation) and policy requirements
(through the CDD) to address this.
3. Allow all third-party applications, including those from Google, to
compete on a level playing field. The Android open source code is

Page 839
CHAP. 10
designed to be neutral as much as possible to the higher-level system
features built on top of it, from access to cloud services (such as data
sync or cloud-to-device messaging APIs), to libraries (such as
Google’s mapping library) and rich services like application stores.
Provide an application security model in which users do not have to
deeply trust third-party applications.
The operating system must pro-
tect the user from misbehavior of applications, not only buggy appli-
cations that can cause it to crash, but more subtle misuse of the device
and the user’s data on it.
The less users need to trust applications, the
more freedom they have to try out and install them.
5. Support typical mobile user interaction: spending short amounts of
time in many apps. The mobile experience tends to involve brief
interactions with applications: glancing at new received email, receiv-
ing and sending an SMS message or IM, going to contacts to place a
call, etc.
The system needs to optimize for these cases with fast app
launch and switch times; the goal for Android has generally been 200
msec to cold start a basic application up to the point of showing a full
interactive UI.
6. Manage application processes for users, simplifying the user experi-
ence around applications so that users do not have to worry about
closing applications when done with them.
Mobile devices also tend
to run without the swap space that allows operating systems to fail
more gracefully when the current set of running applications requires
more RAM than is physically available. To address both of these re-
quirements, the system needs to take a more proactive stance about
managing processes and deciding when they should be started and
7. Encourage applications to interoperate and collaborate in rich and
secure ways. Mobile applications are in some ways a return back to
shell commands: rather than the increasingly large monolithic design
of desktop applications, they are targeted and focused for specific
needs. To help support this, the operating system should provide new
types of facilities for these applications to collaborate together to cre-
ate a larger whole.
Create a full general-purpose operating system.
Mobile devices are a
new expression of general purpose computing, not something simpler
than our traditional desktop operating systems.
Android’s design
should be rich enough that it can grow to be at least as capable as a
traditional operating system.

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