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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Page 505
While CP-40 was a research project, it was reimplemented
to form the control program of
, a virtual machine operating
system for the IBM System/360 Model 67. Later, it was reimplemented again and
released as
for the System/370 series in 1972.
The System/370 line was
replaced by IBM in the 1990s by the System/390.
This was basically a name
change since the underlying architecture remained the same for reasons of back-
ward compatibility. Of course, the hardware technology was improved and the
newer machines were bigger and faster than the older ones, but as far as virtualiza-
tion was concerned, nothing changed.
In 2000, IBM released the z-series, which
supported 64-bit virtual address spaces but was otherwise backward compatible
with the System/360.
All of these systems supported virtualization decades before
it became popular on the x86.
In 1974, two computer scientists at UCLA, Gerald Popek and Robert Gold-
berg, published a seminal paper (‘‘Formal Requirements for Virtualizable Third
Generation Architectures’’) that listed exactly what conditions a computer architec-
ture should satisfy in order to support virtualization efficiently (Popek and Gold-
berg, 1974).
It is impossible to write a chapter on virtualization without referring
to their work and terminology.
Famously, the well-known x86 architecture that
also originated in the 1970s did not meet these requirements for decades. It was not
the only one. Nearly every architecture since the mainframe also failed the test.
The 1970s were very productive, seeing also the birth of UNIX, Ethernet, the
Cray-1, Microsoft, and Apple—so, despite what your parents may say, the 1970s
were not just about disco!
In fact, the real
revolution started in the 1990s, when researchers at Stan-
ford University developed a new hypervisor by that name and went on to found
, a virtualization giant that offers type 1 and type 2 hypervisors and now
rakes in billions of dollars in revenue (Bugnion et al., 1997, Bugnion et al., 2012).
Incidentally, the distinction between ‘‘type 1’’ and ‘‘type 2’’ hypervisors is also
from the seventies (Goldberg, 1972).
VMware introduced its first virtualization
solution for x86 in 1999. In its wake other products followed:
alBox, Hyper-V, Parallels
, and many others. It seems the time was right for virtu-
alization, even though the theory had been nailed down in 1974 and for decades
IBM had been selling computers that supported—and heavily used—virtualization.
In 1999, it became popular among the masses, but new it was not, despite the mas-
sive attention it suddenly gained.
It is important that virtual machines act just like the real McCoy. In particular,
it must be possible to boot them like real machines and install arbitrary operating
systems on them, just as can be done on the real hardware. It is the task of the

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