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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
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Page 67
service. Internet providers run many server machines to support their customers
and Websites use servers to store the Web pages and handle the incoming requests.
Typical server operating systems are Solaris, FreeBSD, Linux and Windows Server
1.4.3 Multiprocessor Operating Systems
An increasingly common way to get major-league computing power is to con-
nect multiple CPUs into a single system. Depending on precisely how they are
connected and what is shared, these systems are called parallel computers, multi-
computers, or multiprocessors. They need special operating systems, but often
these are variations on the server operating systems, with special features for com-
munication, connectivity, and consistency.
With the recent advent of multicore chips for personal computers, even
conventional desktop and notebook operating systems are starting to deal with at
least small-scale multiprocessors and the number of cores is likely to grow over
time. Luckily, quite a bit is known about multiprocessor operating systems from
years of previous research, so using this knowledge in multicore systems should
not be hard. The hard part will be having applications make use of all this comput-
ing power.
Many popular operating systems, including Windows and Linux, run
on multiprocessors.
1.4.4 Personal Computer Operating Systems
The next category is the personal computer operating system. Modern ones all
support multiprogramming, often with dozens of programs started up at boot time.
Their job is to provide good support to a single user.
They are widely used for
word processing, spreadsheets, games, and Internet access. Common examples are
Linux, FreeBSD, Windows 7, Windows 8, and Apple’s OS X.
Personal computer
operating systems are so widely known that probably little introduction is needed.
In fact, many people are not even aware that other kinds exist.
1.4.5 Handheld Computer Operating Systems
Continuing on down to smaller and smaller systems, we come to tablets,
smartphones and other handheld computers.
A handheld computer, originally
known as a
Personal Digital Assistant
), is a small computer that can be
held in your hand during operation. Smartphones and tablets are the best-known
examples. As we have already seen, this market is currently dominated by
Google’s Android and Apple’s iOS, but they have many competitors. Most of these
devices boast multicore CPUs, GPS, cameras and other sensors, copious amounts
of memory, and sophisticated operating systems. Moreover, all of them have more
third-party applications (
) than you can shake a (USB) stick at.

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