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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
##### Page 287
256
MEMORY MANAGEMENT
CHAP. 3
18.
Section 3.3.4 states that the Pentium Pro extended each entry in the page table hier-
archy to 64 bits but still could only address only 4 GB of memory.
Explain how this
statement can be true when page table entries have 64 bits.
19.
A computer with a 32-bit address uses a two-level page table. Virtual addresses are
split into a 9-bit top-level page table field, an 11-bit second-level page table field, and
an offset. How large are the pages and how many are there in the address space?
20.
A computer has 32-bit virtual addresses and 4-KB pages. The program and data toget-
her fit in the lowest page (0–4095) The stack fits in the highest page. How many en-
tries are needed in the page table if traditional (one-level) paging is used?
How many
page table entries are needed for two-level paging, with 10 bits in each part?
21.
Below is an execution trace of a program fragment for a computer with 512-byte
pages. The program is located at address 1020, and its stack pointer is at 8192 (the
stack grows toward 0).
Give the page reference string generated by this program. Each
instruction occupies 4 bytes (1 word) including immediate constants.
Both instruction
and data references count in the reference string.
Load word 6144 into register 0
Push register 0 onto the stack
Call a procedure at 5120, stacking the return address
Subtract the immediate constant 16 from the stack pointer
Compare the actual parameter to the immediate constant 4
Jump if equal to 5152
22.
A computer whose processes have 1024 pages in their address spaces keeps its page
tables in memory. The overhead required for reading a word from the page table is 5
nsec. To reduce this overhead, the computer has a TLB, which holds 32 (virtual page,
physical page frame) pairs, and can do a lookup in 1 nsec. What hit rate is needed to
reduce the mean overhead to 2 nsec?
23.
How can the associative memory device needed for a TLB be implemented in hard-
ware, and what are the implications of such a design for expandability?
24.
A machine has 48-bit virtual addresses and 32-bit physical addresses. Pages are 8 KB.
How many entries are needed for a single-level linear page table?
25.
A computer with an 8-KB page, a 256-KB main memory, and a 64-GB virtual address
space uses an inverted page table to implement its virtual memory. How big should the
hash table be to ensure a mean hash chain length of less than 1?
Assume that the hash-
table size is a power of two.
26.
A student in a compiler design course proposes to the professor a project of writing a
compiler that will produce a list of page references that can be used to implement the
optimal page replacement algorithm. Is this possible?
Why or why not? Is there any-
thing that could be done to improve paging efficiency at run time?
27.
Suppose that the virtual page reference stream contains repetitions of long sequences
of page references followed occasionally by a random page reference. For example, the
sequence: 0, 1, ... , 511, 431, 0, 1, ... , 511, 332, 0, 1, ...
consists of repetitions of the
sequence 0, 1, ... , 511 followed by a random reference to pages 431 and 332.

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