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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Page 948
SEC. 11.4
be used over a network but do not provide guaranteed delivery.
Finally, they allow
the sending process to broadcast a message to many receivers, instead of to just
one receiver. Both mailslots and named pipes are implemented as file systems in
Windows, rather than executive functions. This allows them to be accessed over
the network using the existing remote file-system protocols.
are like pipes, except that they normally connect processes on dif-
ferent machines.
For example, one process writes to a socket and another one on a
remote machine reads from it.
Sockets can also be used to connect processes on
the same machine, but since they entail more overhead than pipes, they are gener-
ally only used in a networking context. Sockets were originally designed for
Berkeley UNIX, and the implementation was made widely available. Some of the
Berkeley code and data structures are still present in Windows today, as acknow-
ledged in the release notes for the system.
RPCs are a way for process
to have process
call a procedure in
’s address
space on
’s behalf and return the result to
Various restrictions on the parame-
ters exist. For example, it makes no sense to pass a pointer to a different process,
so data structures have to be packaged up and transmitted in a nonprocess-specific
way. RPC is normally implemented as an abstraction layer on top of a transport
In the case of Windows, the transport can be TCP/IP sockets, named pipes,
or ALPC.
ALPC (Advanced Local Procedure Call) is a message-passing facility in
the kernel-mode executive.
It is optimized for communicating between processes
on the local machine and does not operate across the network. The basic design is
for sending messages that generate replies, implementing a lightweight version of
remote procedure call which the RPC package can build on top of to provide a
richer set of features than available in ALPC.
ALPC is implemented using a com-
bination of copying parameters and temporary allocation of shared memory, based
on the size of the messages.
Finally, processes can share objects.
This includes section objects, which can
be mapped into the virtual address space of different processes at the same time.
All writes done by one process then appear in the address spaces of the other proc-
esses. Using this mechanism, the shared buffer used in producer-consumer prob-
lems can easily be implemented.
Processes can also use various types of synchronization objects.
Just as Win-
dows provides numerous interprocess communication mechanisms, it also provides
numerous synchronization mechanisms, including semaphores, mutexes, critical
regions, and events. All of these mechanisms work with threads, not processes, so
that when a thread blocks on a semaphore, other threads in that process (if any) are
not affected and can continue to run.
A semaphore can be created using the
Win32 API function,
which can also initialize it to a given value and define a maximum value as well.

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