Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos ...
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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Page 736
SEC. 9.12
not tampered with, which rapidly leads to the requirement that operating systems
must provide good security. In general, the security of a system is inversely propor-
tional to the size of the trusted computing base.
A fundamental component of security for operating systems concerns access
control to resources. Access rights to information can be modeled as a big matrix,
with the rows being the domains (users) and the columns being the objects (e.g.,
files). Each cell specifies the access rights of the domain to the object. Since the
matrix is sparse, it can be stored by row, which becomes a capability list saying
what that domain can do, or by column, in which case it becomes an access control
list telling who can access the object and how. Using formal modeling techniques,
information flow in a system can be modeled and limited. However, sometimes it
can still leak out using covert channels, such as modulating CPU usage.
One way to keep information secret is to encrypt it and manage the keys care-
Cryptographic schemes can be categorized as secret key or public key. A
secret-key method requires the communicating parties to exchange a secret key in
advance, using some out-of-band mechanism. Public-key cryptography does not
require secretly exchanging a key in advance, but it is much slower in use.
times it is necessary to prove the authenticity of digital information, in which case
cryptographic hashes, digital signatures, and certificates signed by a trusted certifi-
cation authority can be used.
In any secure system users must be authenticated. This can be done by some-
thing the user knows, something the user has, or something the user is (biometrics).
Two-factor identification, such as an iris scan and a password, can be used to
enhance security.
Many kinds of bugs in the code can be exploited to take over programs and
systems. These include buffer overflows, format string attacks, dangling pointer at-
tacks, return to libc attacks, null pointer dereference attacks, integer overflow at-
tacks, command injection attacks, and TOCTOUs. Likewise, there are many count-
er measures that try to prevent such exploits. Examples include stack canaries, data
execution prevention, and address-space layout randomization.
Insiders, such as company employees, can defeat system security in a variety
of ways. These include logic bombs set to go off on some future date, trap doors to
allow the insider unauthorized access later, and login spoofing.
The Internet is full of malware, including Trojan horses, viruses, worms, spy-
ware, and rootkits. Each of these poses a threat to data confidentiality and integrity.
Worse yet, a malware attack may be able to take over a machine and turn it into a
zombie which sends spam or is used to launch other attacks.
Many of the attacks
all over the Internet are done by zombie armies under control of a remote botmas-
Fortunately, there are a number of ways systems can defend themselves. The
best strategy is defense in depth, using multiple techniques.
Some of these include
firewalls, virus scanners, code signing, jailing, and intrusion detection systems, and
encapsulating mobile code.

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