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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Page 925
CHAP. 11
kernel, and executive layers, link in the driver images, and access/update configu-
ration data in the SYSTEM hive.
After all the kernel-mode components are ini-
tialized, the first user-mode process is created using for running the
gram (which is like
in UNIX systems).
Recent versions of Windows provide support for improving the security of the
system at boot time.
Many newer PCs contain a
Trusted Platform Mod-
), which is chip on the parentboard.
chip is a secure cryptographic processor
which protects secrets, such as encryption/decryption keys. The system’s TPM can
be used to protect system keys, such as those used by BitLocker to encrypt the
disk. Protected keys are not revealed to the operating system until after TPM has
verified that an attacker has not tampered with them.
It can also provide other
cryptographic functions, such as attesting to remote systems that the operating sys-
tem on the local system had not been compromised.
The Windows boot programs have logic to deal with common problems users
encounter when booting the system fails. Sometimes installation of a bad device
driver, or running a program like
(which can corrupt the SYSTEM hive),
will prevent the system from booting normally.
There is support for ignoring re-
cent changes and booting to the
last known good
configuration of the system.
Other boot options include
, which turns off many optional drivers, and
recovery console
, which fires up a
command-line window, providing
an experience similar to single-user mode in UNIX.
Another common problem for users has been that occasionally some Windows
systems appear to be very flaky, with frequent (seemingly random) crashes of both
the system and applications.
Data taken from Microsoft’s Online Crash Analysis
program provided evidence that many of these crashes were due to bad physical
memory, so the boot process in Windows provides the option of running an exten-
sive memory diagnostic.
Perhaps future PC hardware will commonly support ECC
(or maybe parity) for memory, but most of the desktop, notebook, and handheld
systems today are vulnerable to even single-bit errors in the tens of billions of
memory bits they contain.
11.3.3 Implementation of the Object Manager
The object manager is probably the single most important component in the
Windows executive, which is why we have already introduced many of its con-
cepts. As described earlier, it provides a uniform and consistent interface for man-
aging system resources and data structures, such as open files, processes, threads,
memory sections, timers, devices, drivers, and semaphores.
Even more specialized
objects representing things like kernel transactions, profiles, security tokens, and
Win32 desktops are managed by the object manager.
Device objects link together
the descriptions of the I/O system, including providing the link between the NT
namespace and file-system volumes. The configuration manager uses an object of
to link in the registry hives. The object manager itself has objects it uses

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