Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos ...
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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Page 1007
CHAP. 11
I/O performance for many applications because read operations can be satisfied
without accessing the disk.
I/O is performed by device drivers, which follow the Windows Driver Model.
Each driver starts out by initializing a driver object that contains the addresses of
the procedures that the system can call to manipulate devices. The actual devices
are represented by device objects, which are created from the configuration de-
scription of the system or by the plug-and-play manager as it discovers devices
when enumerating the system buses. Devices are stacked and I/O request packets
are passed down the stack and serviced by the drivers for each device in the device
stack. I/O is inherently asynchronous, and drivers commonly queue requests for
further work and return back to their caller.
File-system volumes are implemented
as devices in the I/O system.
The NTFS file system is based on a master file table, which has one record per
file or directory.
All the metadata in an NTFS file system is itself part of an NTFS
file. Each file has multiple attributes, which can be either in the MFT record or
nonresident (stored in blocks outside the MFT).
NTFS supports Unicode, com-
pression, journaling, and encryption among many other features.
Finally, Windows has a sophisticated security system based on access control
lists and integrity levels. Each process has an authentication token that tells the
identity of the user and what special privileges the process has, if any. Each object
has a security descriptor associated with it.
The security descriptor points to a dis-
cretionary access control list that contains access control entries that can allow or
deny access to individuals or groups.
Windows has added numerous security fea-
tures in recent releases, including BitLocker for encrypting entire volumes, and ad-
dress-space randomization, nonexecutable stacks, and other measures to make suc-
cessful attacks more difficult.
Give one advantage and one disadvantage of the registry vs. having individual
A mouse can have one, two, or three buttons. All three types are in use.
Does the HAL
hide this difference from the rest of the operating system?
Why or why not?
The HAL keeps track of time starting in the year 1601.
Give an example of an applica-
tion where this feature is useful.
In Sec. 11.3.3 we described the problems caused by multithreaded applications closing
handles in one thread while still using them in another.
One possibility for fixing this
would be to insert a sequence field. How could this help?
What changes to the system
would be required?
Many components of the executive (Fig. 11-11) call other components of the executive.
Give three examples of one component calling another one, but use (six) different com-
ponents in all.

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