Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos ...
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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Page 906
SEC. 11.2
drawing geometric figures, filling them in, managing the color palettes they use,
dealing with fonts, and placing icons on the screen.
Finally, there are calls for
dealing with the keyboard, mouse and other human-input devices as well as audio,
printing, and other output devices.
The GUI operations work directly with the
driver using special in-
terfaces to access these functions in kernel mode from user-mode libraries.
these calls do not involve the core system calls in the NTOS executive, we will not
say more about them.
11.2.3 The Windows Registry
The root of the NT namespace is maintained in the kernel. Storage, such as
file-system volumes, is attached to the NT namespace.
Since the NT namespace is
constructed afresh every time the system boots, how does the system know about
any specific details of the system configuration? The answer is that Windows
attaches a special kind of file system (optimized for small files) to the NT name-
space. This file system is called the
The registry is organized into sepa-
rate volumes called
Each hive is kept in a separate file (in the directory
C: \ Windows \ system32 \ config \
of the boot volume). When a Windows system
boots, one particular hive named
is loaded into memory by the same boot
program that loads the kernel and other boot files, such as boot drivers, from the
boot volume.
Windows keeps a great deal of crucial information in the SYSTEM hive, in-
cluding information about what drivers to use with what devices, what software to
run initially, and many parameters governing the operation of the system.
information is used even by the boot program itself to determine which drivers are
boot drivers, being needed immediately upon boot.
Such drivers include those that
understand the file system and disk drivers for the volume containing the operating
system itself.
Other configuration hives are used after the system boots to describe infor-
mation about the software installed on the system, particular users, and the classes
of user-mode
Component Object-Model
) objects that are installed on the
system. Login information for local users is kept in the
Security Access
) hive.
Information for network users is maintained by the
in the security hive and coordinated with the network directory servers so that
users can have a common account name and password across an entire network. A
list of the hives used in Windows is shown in Fig. 11-9.
Prior to the introduction of the registry, configuration information in Windows
was kept in hundreds of
(initialization) files spread across the disk.
The reg-
istry gathers these files into a central store, which is available early in the process
of booting the system. This is important for implementing Windows plug-and-play
Unfortunately, the registry has become seriously disorganized over
time as Windows has evolved. There are poorly defined conventions about how the

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