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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Page 751
CHAP. 10
quickly became a collective undertaking by large numbers of users over the Inter-
net. It was a prototype of other collaborative efforts that came later.
In 1997, Ver-
sion 2.0 of MINIX, was released and the base system, now including networking,
had grown to 62,200 lines of code.
Around 2004, the direction of MINIX development changed aharply. The fo-
cus shifted to building an extremely reliable and dependable system that could
automatically repair its own faults and become self healing, continuing to function
correctly even in the face of repeated software bugs being triggered.
As a conse-
quence, the modularization idea present in Version 1 was greatly expanded in
MINIX 3.0. Nearly all the device drivers were moved to user space, with each driv-
er running as a separate process. The size of the entire kernel abruptly dropped to
under 4000 lines of code, something a single programmer could easily understand.
Internal mechanisms were changed to enhance fault tolerance in numerous ways.
In addition, over 650 popular UNIX programs were ported to MINIX
, in-
cluding the
X Window System
(sometimes just called
), various compilers (in-
), text-processing software, networking software, Web browsers, and
much more. Unlike previous versions, which were primarily educational in nature,
starting with MINIX
, the system was quite usable, with the focus moving to-
ward high dependability.
The ultimate goal is: No more reset buttons.
A third edition of the book
Operating Systems: Design and Implementation
appeared, describing the new system, giving its source code in an appendix, and
describing it in detail (Tanenbaum and Woodhull, 2006).
The system continues to
evolve and has an active user community.
It has since been ported to the ARM
processor, making it available for embedded systems.
For more details and to get
the current version for free, you can visit
10.1.7 Linux
During the early years of MINIX development and discussion on the Internet,
many people requested (or in many cases, demanded) more and better features, to
which the author often said ‘‘No’’ (to keep the system small enough for students to
understand completely in a one-semester university course).
This continuous
‘‘No’’ irked many users. At this time, FreeBSD was not available, so that was not
an option.
After a number of years went by like this, a Finnish student, Linus Tor-
valds, decided to write another UNIX clone, named
, which would be a full-
blown production system with many features MINIX was initially lacking. The
first version of Linux, 0.01, was released in 1991.
It was cross-developed on a
MINIX machine and borrowed numerous ideas from MINIX, ranging from the
structure of the source tree to the layout of the file system. However, it was a
monolithic rather than a microkernel design, with the entire operating system in the
kernel. The code totaled 9300 lines of C and 950 lines of assembler, roughly simi-
lar to MINIX version in size and also comparable in functionality.
De facto, it was
a rewrite of MINIX, the only system Torvalds had source code for.

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