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Modern Operating Systems by Herbert Bos and Andrew...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Modern Operating Systems by Herbert...
Modern_Operating_Systems_by_Herbert_Bos_and_Andrew_S._Tanenbaum_4th_Ed.pdf-M ODERN O PERATING S YSTEMS
Page 890
SEC. 11.1
MS-DOS was a 16-bit real-mode, single-user, command-line-oriented operat-
ing system consisting of 8 KB of memory resident code.
Over the next decade,
both the PC and MS-DOS continued to evolve, adding more features and capabili-
ties. By 1986, when IBM built the PC/AT based on the Intel 286, MS-DOS had
grown to be 36 KB, but it continued to be a command-line-oriented, one-applica-
tion-ata-time, operating system.
11.1.2 1990s: MS-DOS-based Windows
Inspired by the graphical user interface of a system developed by Doug Engel-
bart at Stanford Research Institute and later improved at Xerox PARC, and their
commercial progeny, the Apple Lisa and the Apple Macintosh, Microsoft decided
to give MS-DOS a graphical user interface that it called
The first two
versions of Windows (1985 and 1987) were not very successful, due in part to the
limitations of the PC hardware available at the time.
In 1990 Microsoft released
Windows 3.0
for the Intel 386, and sold over one million copies in six months.
Windows 3.0 was not a true operating system, but a graphical environment
built on top of MS-DOS, which was still in control of the machine and the file sys-
tem. All programs ran in the same address space and a bug in any one of them
could bring the whole system to a frustrating halt.
In August 1995,
Windows 95
was released. It contained many of the features
of a full-blown operating system, including virtual memory, process management,
and multiprogramming, and introduced 32-bit programming interfaces. However,
it still lacked security, and provided poor isolation between applications and the
operating system.
Thus, the problems with instability continued, even with the
subsequent releases of
Windows 98
Windows Me
, where MS-DOS was still
there running 16-bit assembly code in the heart of the Windows operating system.
11.1.3 2000s: NT-based Windows
By end of the 1980s, Microsoft realized that continuing to evolve an operating
system with MS-DOS at its center was not the best way to go. PC hardware was
continuing to increase in speed and capability and ultimately the PC market would
collide with the desktop, workstation, and enterprise-server computing markets,
where UNIX was the dominant operating system. Microsoft was also concerned
that the Intel microprocessor family might not continue to be competitive, as it was
already being challenged by RISC architectures.
To address these issues, Micro-
soft recruited a group of engineers from DEC (Digital Equipment Corporation) led
by Dave Cutler, one of the key designers of DEC’s VMS operating system (among
others). Cutler was chartered to develop a brand-new 32-bit operating system that
was intended to implement
, the operating system API that Microsoft was
jointly developing with IBM at the time.
The original design documents by Cut-
ler’s team called the system

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