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Page 7
BIOL1151 – Exam 1, Version A
7
Sawyer, Fall 2015
Short answer questions: This section of the test is worth 16 points.
You MUST answer
two (2)
of the following questions.
You may
answer a third question for 8 BONUS points.
If you answer more than three of the questions, only the first three will be graded.
1.
Answer the questions in the box below about homeostasis, homeostatic regulation, and thermoregulation.
2.
Answer the questions in the box below about nucleotides and ATP.
a. List the
three
components of any nucleotide.
1 pt each (3 pts total)
1)
Pentose (5-carbon sugar)
2)
Phosphate Group
3)
Nitrogenous Base
b. Which two parts of the nucleotide make up the
backbone
of DNA? ____
Sugar
______
(0.3 pt)
___ and ______
Phosphate
__
(0.3 pt)
c. Which part of the nucleotide make up the
ladder rungs
” of DNA? _____
Nitrogenous Bases
___
(0.3 pt)
____________________
d. What is the structural difference between purines and pyrimidines?
(1.1 pts)
Purines have a double-ring structure, while pyrimidines only have a single-ring structure
e. List the three
specific
components of a molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
1 pt each (3 pts total)
1)
Ribose Sugar
2)
Three Phosphate Groups
3)
Adenine Nitrogenous Base
a.
Define
homeostasis
.
(1 pt)
Maintenance of a stable internal environment even when external conditions are changing
b. List and briefly describe the three essential parts of any homeostatic regulation mechanism.
1 pt each (3 pts total)
1
Receptor
senses the current conditions
2
Control Center
goal is to maintain a set point
3
Effector
induces a change
c. Briefly describe the process of thermoregulation in the body (make sure to mention all parts involved).
Temperature receptors in the skin and hypothalamus monitor body temperature (receptors)
(1 pt)
The hypothalamus (control center) compares the information to the set point (37°C)
(1 pt)
If the temperature of the body moves away from the set point, the hypothalamus sends a signal to the effectors (sweat glands,
muscles, blood vessels)
to cause a change in body temperature back to the set point
(1 pt)
d.
Fill in the blank:
Thermoregulation is an example of _________
negative
__________________ feedback.
(1 pt)
(positive, negative)


Page 8
BIOL1151 – Exam 1, Version A
8
Sawyer, Fall 2015
3.
In each row of the table below,
choose one
of the two organelles listed, and fill in the blanks with the correct information for
the chosen organelle. CIRCLE YOUR CHOICE!
Choose and
CIRCLE one
organelle for
each row
Membranous or
Non-Membranous?
0.5 pts each
(2 pts total)
One Fact About The
STRUCTURE
0.5 pts each (2 pts total)
One FUNCTION
1 pt each (4 pts total)
Centrioles
-or-
Cilia
Non-Membranous
Non-Membranous
Made of Microtubules;
9+0 arrangement
9+2 arrangement of
microtubules; anchored to
basal body
Forms spindle apparatus during mitosis
Beat rhythmically to produce movement;
Also important in signaling and development
Proteasome
-or-
Peroxisome
Non-Membranous
Membranous
Made of protein; contains
proteases
Small; contains dangerous
chemical reactions (H
2
O
2
)
Removes and recycled damaged, denatured, and
abnormal proteins
Absorb and breaks down fatty acids
Rough ER
-or-
Smooth ER
Membranous
Membranous
Has ribosomes attached to
the outer surface
No ribosomes are
attached; just a folded
membrane
Synthesizes, modifies, and packages proteins
Makes: Phospholipids, cholesterol, steroids,
glycerides, glycogen; Stores ions; Detoxification
and Inactivation of drugs and toxins
Lysosome
-or-
Nucleus
Membranous
Membranous
Vesicles containing
digestive enzymes
Double membrane with
nuclear pores
Breaks down old organelles; Destroys bacteria;
Cleans up and recycles cellular wastes
Control center for cell; contains all the
instruction for cell operations in the DNA
4.
Fill in the empty cells of the first three rows in which several different types of tissue are described. For each row, there are
two or three blank cells that you must fill in.
You only have to provide one function and one example in the body. Then,
answer the question in the box below.
Empty Cells: 0.5 pts each (5 pts total)
Specific Tissue
Type
General Class of
Tissue
Description
Function
Example in the Body
Pseudostratified
Columnar
Epithelial
Single layer of tall, skinny
cells with cilia; nuclei at
different levels
Protection; Secretion;
Movement of mucous
Upper respiratory tract;
male reproductive tract
Adipose Tissue
Connective
(Loose)
Contains a lot of
adipocytes
Padding; Cushions
Shocks; Insulate;
Stores Energy
Buttocks; Breasts; Deep
under skin
Neuroglia
Neural
There are many different
cell types
Maintains structure of nervous
tissues; repairs tissue after
injury; phagocytosis; provides
nutrients to neurons; regulates
fluid surround neurons
Astrocytes;
Oligodendrocytes
Fibrocartilage
Connective
(Supporting)
Chondrocytes in lacunae;
Visible dense collagen
fibers
Resists compression;
Prevents bone-to-bone
contact; Limits
Movement
Pads in Knee; Between
Pubic Bones;
Intervertebral Discs
List three differences between cartilage and bone:
1 pt each (3 pts total)
Ground substance in bone has small amount of liquid with calcium phosphate; cartilage is gel-like with chondroitin sulfate
1)
Bone is made by osteocytes; cartilage is made by chondrocytes
Bone contains primarily collagen fibers; cartilage can contain all three fiber types
2)
Bone has extensive blood vessels (vascularized); cartilage is avascular (no blood vessels)
Bone is covered by the periosteum; cartilage is covered by the perichondrium
3)
Bone has extensive repair capabilities; cartilages has only very limited repair capabilities
Bone is very strong, but cannot be distorted; cartilage has limited strength, but bends easy (flexible)


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