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PET_4067_Physical_Dimensions_of_Aging_Study_Guide_3.docx-Physical Dimensions of aging PET 4076/5077
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PET 4067 Physical Dimensions of Aging Study Guide ...
PET_4067_Physical_Dimensions_of_Aging_Study_Guide_3.docx-Physical Dimensions of aging PET 4076/5077
PET 4067 Physical Dimensions of Agi...
PET_4067_Physical_Dimensions_of_Aging_Study_Guide_3.docx-Physical Dimensions of aging PET 4076/5077
Page 10
partial functional ability (e.g., by recruiting other
parts
of
the
brain
to
take
over
the
function of the damaged brain tissue). The same reorganization
mechanism, in less stark form, can be seen with age-related
loss
of
cognitive
ability,
where
the
brain compensates for declining function by recruiting
contralateral tissue (e.g., using both hemispheres) for a task
that
was
once
accomplished
unilaterally
in
one
hemisphere [39].
o
Augmentation represents the case of compensating for an impairment by
providing additional capacity. A good example is eyewear, glasses with corrective
lenses, that transparently correct faulty visual functioning al-lowing someone to
scan the environment with high visual acuity.
The visual
system
is
still
functioning
but
augmenting light-bending capability in front of the eye enhances
focus capability and hence visual functioning.
o
Substitution is the most extreme solution to loss of function. If hair cells in the
cochlea die or lose function, normal hearing becomes impossible as these cells are
a critical piece of the chain conducting complex sound waves from eardrum to the
auditory nerve and into other brain regions. The only way to restore hearing in
such cases is with a cochlear implant that bypass-es the hair cells and transmits
sound vibration information by directly stimulating auditory nerve fibers. The
cochlear
implant
substitutes
for
hair
cells,
somewhat
imperfectly with present
technology, but permits some auditory information to be transmitted to the
appropriate brain regions.
o
The
aim
of
an
intervention
is
to
change
functional
capacity
to
enhance
performance,
be
it
vision,
cognition,
or
psychomotor
functioning
(e.g.,
dexterity),
thereby
enabling
people
to
reach
important
personal
goals.
43.
Are loneliness and social isolation associated with premature death?
44.
What are some of the constraints of using technology in the older populations?
45.
What is a fall?
A fall is defined as an unintended change in posture such that one’s center of gravity
comes to rest on a lower horizontal surface
46.
How many people over the age of 60 report a fall each year?
Over 80?
1/3 of older adults report a fall each year (60)
½ for 80
47. Know the risk factors for falls.
Age >80
Muscle weakness
Gait deficits
Balance deficits, assistive device usage
Visual deficits
Arthritis
Impaired ADLs
Depression
Cognitive impairment


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