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POL_102_pt1_midterm_-_Study_Guide.pdf-Comparative Politics Non-Democratic Political Regimes Three
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POL 102 pt1 midterm - Study Guide.pdf-Comparative ...
POL_102_pt1_midterm_-_Study_Guide.pdf-Comparative Politics Non-Democratic Political Regimes Three
POL 102 pt1 midterm - Study Guide.p...
POL_102_pt1_midterm_-_Study_Guide.pdf-Comparative Politics Non-Democratic Political Regimes Three
Page 1
Comparative Politics
Non-Democratic Political Regimes
Three characteristics distinguish
totalitarianism from authoritarianism
1. Use of Ideology
set of beliefs or ideas that structures
and gives meaning to political
interests and motivates people to
act politically in particular ways
resemble cults
2.The Extent of coercive
mobilization
totalitarian regimes employ state
institutions to coercively mobilize
individuals to support the regime
3. The Degree of Social and
Political Pluralism Permitted
authoritarian regimes tolerate some
degree of social freedoms, limit
political pluralism
totalitarian regimes do not tolerate
social or political pluralism
Accountability
Selectorate
a subset of the population that
choses and removes the leader or
leaders
Reciprocal Accountability
choses and removes the leadership,
but the leadership also selects and
removes the members of the
selecotorate
Totalitarian Regime
government attempts to shape the
interests and identities of its citizens
by articulating a coherent ideology,
employing extensive efforts to
coercively mobile support for the
regime, and imposing tight
restrictions on both social and
political pluralism
Authoritarian Regime
concentrates using coercion to limit
political pluralism in order to remain
in power, but relative to a totalitarian
regime, an authoritarian regime
permits some social pluralism. An
authoritarian regime identities, or
support for the regime
Communist vs. Fascist
Communism holds that under
capitalist systems the workers are
exploited. Communist believes that
efforts should be made to
redistribute economic wealth as
much as possible and that a single
political party should direct
government and control the state
Capitalism: a economic system in
which individuals hold and invest
property
Fascism is a totalitarian ideology
based in racist principles that
glorifies militarism, violence,
nationalism, and the state over
individuals interests and identities,
usually lead by charismatic political
leaders
certain races are inherently superior
and would inevitably conquer
weaker ones
Institutions of Non-Democratic
Regimes
Compare and contrast four
characteristics
1. Size of the selectorate
3. Rules for selection of leaders
2. Criteria for admission to the
selectorate
Rules governing the use of power
— wether the relationship between
the selectorate and the leader is
based on formal rules and
procedures, including lines of
succession, party rules and military
chain of command
Monarchies
Absolute Monarchy
no electorate exists meaning the
ruler answers to no one
Constitutional Monarchy
a system in which the constitution
sets formal limits on the monarchs
powers
Single Party Regimes
a single party dominates all
government institutions and restricts
political competition to maintain
itself to power
Military Regimes
Junta: the group of leaders
selectorate is typically limited to the
highest ranks of a military officer
corps
Oligarchy
a non democratic regime in which
the electorate consists of a small
social, economic, or politic elite,
which selects the leaders to
represent their interests.
Theocracy
non-democratic regimes in which
the leaders who claim divine
guidance hold the rule to authority
Personalistic Regime
A system built around the
glorification and empowerment of a
single individual
Doing Comparative Politics
Politics
who get whats when and how
Comparative Politics
the systematic search for answers
to political questions about how
people around the world make and
contest public choices
Hypothesis
the possibility that a hypothesis can
be shown to be false
Falsifiable
the possibility that a hypothesis can
be shown to be false
Comparative Method
a way to examine patterns of facts
or events to narrow down what is
important in terms of building a
convincing comparative argument
Method of Agreement
compares and contrasts cases with
different attributes but a shared
outcome seeing the one attribute
these cases have in common to
attribute causality
Method of Difference
compares and contrasts cases with
the same attributes but different
outcomes, and determines causality
by finding an attribute that is
present when an outcome occurs
but is absent when the outcome
does not occur
Comparative Research
Correlation
a measure of observed association
between two variables
Causation
a process or event that produces an
observable effect
Research
Quantitative research
relies on statistical data to asses
relationships between attributes and
outcomes
Qualitative research
focuses on an in depth
understanding of attributes and
outcomes
Mixed Methods research
uses both
The State
State: a political legal unit with
sovereignty over a particular
geographic territory and the
population that resides in that
territory
Sovereignty: ultimate responsibility
for and legal authority over the
conduct of internal affairs, including
a claim to a monopoly on the use of
legitimate physical force within
territory defined by specific
geographic borders
Failed State: a state where
sovereignty over claimed territory
has collapsed or was never fully
established at all
Legitimacy: the degree to which the
citizens willingly accept the state’s
sovereign authority to use power
Balancing Individual and Collective
Interests
The Prisoners Dilemma
Hobbes
State of Nature: a term coined by
Thomas Hobbes to describe an
imaginary time before human
beings organized into governments
or states for the collective good, not
a pretty place
Social Contract: a theoretical
agreement in which everyone
agrees to limit their ability to do as
they please in order to achieve
some mutual collective benefit
Establishing Institutions
Government: the organization that
has the authority to act on behalf of
the state and the right to make
decisions that affect everyone in the
state
Nation: a cultural grouping of
individuals who associate with each
other based on collectively held
political identity
Nationalism: a subjective feeling of
membership in a nation
Society: a term used for the
organized groups, social
movements, interest groups, and
individual who attempt to remain
autonomous from the influence of
the authority of the state
Early State Formation
The Treaty Of Westphalia serves as
a convenient dividing point between
pre-modern and forms of political
organization
Late Forming states
A decline in the legitimacy of
traditional forms of political authority
such as the rule of charismatic
authority figure, inherited
leadership, or religious authority,
and an increase in the legitimacy of
depersonalized, public governance
based on the rule of law
An increase in the central
governments sovereignty over
carefully delineated territory and a
decline of decentralized and
overlapping forms of sovereignty
such as the traditional system of
feudalism, under which several local
or regional land owning nobles
claimed authority over a single
piece o territory and only paid
nominal allegiance to a central king
or emperor
Feudalism: a form of political
organization in which no single
political entity or ruler held
unambiguous territorial sovereignty
and in which political rule involved
multiple and often overlapping lines
of authority
An increase in the organizational
complicity of central government
institutions
Late forming states tend to be
relatively weak because many were
extremely poor at independence
and could not draw upon a coherent
national identity to generate
legitimacy
Late forming states with difficult
terrain find constructing legitimate
and effective state institutions more
expensive. States with flat and open
terrain can more easily control their
own borders and police their own
territory
Democratic Political Regimes
Democracy: a political system in
which the rulers are accountable to
the ruled
1. Accountability: a political
mechanism that offers citizens
regular and realistic opportunities to
remove the rulers from office
through peaceful and constitutional
means
2. Participation: a political
mechanism that offers citizens
regular and realistic opportunities to
remove the rulers from office
through peaceful and constitutional
means
Electorate is the group of citizens
eligible to participate in the election
of government leaders
Universal Suffrage wherein all adult
citizens have the right to participate
in the electoral process that
removes and selects leaders
3. Contestation: real competition for
power must exist; there must be
more than one group competing for
power
Madison’s Dilemma
How do democracies balance the
tension between limited and
effective governments?
Constitution is a set of key laws and
principles that structure the extent
and distribution of government
authority and individual rights by
setting up the rules of the political
games
Unitary Versus Federal
Constitutions
Unitarism
the constitution grants the central
government exclusive and final
authority over policy making across
the entire national territory
Federalism
the constitution grants two or more
government overlapping political
authority over the same group of
people and the same piece of
territory
Electoral Process
The political rules that translate
citizens votes into legislative seats
and or control of directly elected
executive
Plurality Rule
the candidate who receives the
largest share of votes wins
regardless wether he receives a
majority
Majority Rule
requires the candidate to receive
50% + 1 vote to win
Proportional Representation
an electoral system that distributes
seats proportionally to vote each
party receives
Mixed Electoral Systems
combine a plurality and majority rule
to elect some members of the
legislature with a PR electoral rule
to elect the remainder
Executive-Legislative Relations
Presidential system
a constitutional format in which the
executive and legislative branches
enjoy both separation of origin and
survival
Separation of Origin
voters directly elect members of a
legislature and also cast a separate
ballot directly electing the chief
executive
Separation of Survival
members of both the executive and
legislative branches serve for fixed
terms in office
Parliamentary System
a constitutional format in which the
executive and legislative branches
have neither separation of origin nor
separation of survival
Prime Minister
the chief executive in a
parliamentary system
No Confidence Vote
a parliamentary vote which, if
successful, terminates the prime
ministers appointment
Hybrid Systems
Semi Presential Hybrid
a constitutional format in which the
president and parliament enjoy
separation of origin but only the
president enjoys separation of
survival
Dual Executive
in hybrid democratic regimes an
executive branch of the government
characterized by a division of
authority and responsibility between
a president and a prime minister
Divided Government
occurs in presidential systems when
the president comes from a different
government than controls the
legislature
Legally
Judicial review is the ability of the
country’s high court to invalidate
laws that the legislature has
enacted by declaring them
unconstitutional
Marbury v. Madison
established that the judicial branch
had the authority to undertake
judicial review of laws passed by
congress and signed by the
president
Parliamentary supremacy is a
principle to which judges devisions
remain subordinate to decisions of
the legislative majority.


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