Phil1051Spring2020StudyGuideMidterm.pdf-Introduction to Philosophy Midterm Study Guide.
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Phil1051Spring2020StudyGuideMidterm.pdf-Introduction to Philosophy Midterm Study Guide.
Phil1051Spring2020StudyGuideMidterm.pdf-Introduction to Philosophy Midterm Study Guide.
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Introduction to Philosophy
Midterm Study Guide.
Date: March 11, 2020
Format: 10 questions (answers should be 1-2 sentences in length), 5 questions (answers should
be 3 and 6 sentences in length).
1. The Nature of Philosophy
a. What does the word “philosophia” literally mean?
b. How do philosophers claim to build upon the kinds of judgments that we make in everyday
c. Know how Plato, Socrates, and Aristotle are related.
d. Know how Western Philosophy emerged in Greece in contrast to the myths about the gods.
(e.g. what kind of notion of divinity replaced the traditional Greek gods.)
e. Know about Thales. What is he famous for? How do his priorities illustrate how early western
philosopher’s understood their activity?
f. Know the paradox of identity and the paradox of the heap.
g. Be able to discuss how the paradox of identity is applied to human beings.
Know Thomas Aquinas’ Fifth way for showing the existence of God.
i. Know Paley’s argument for the existence of God.
j. Know Hume’s criticism of the kind of argument which Aquinas and Paley present.
k. Be able to define metaphysics and state how questions concerning the existence of God and
concerning identity are metaphysical questions.
a. Be familiar with the characters and the plot.
b. How do Euthyphro and Socrates differ with respect to their attitudes to the myths about them?
c. How does Euthyphro justify himself at first?
d. What kinds of issues does Socrates raise concerning Euthyphro's claim to know what is pious?
e. What kind of definition of piety does Socrates want from Euthyphro? What does it mean to
look for the “form” of something? How is this activity public as opposed to private?

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f. How does Euthyphro’s definition of piety change in response to Socrates’ questioning?
g. What is the key problem that Socrates raises concerning Euthyphro's proposed definition of
piety that “an action is pious if and only if all god’s love it”?
h. What problem does this dialogue present concerning appeals to authority?
i. What is the dialogue meant to show about how Plato understands philosophy?
a. Be familiar with the characters and the plot.
b. What is an “apology” and why does Plato think that he needs to write one for Socates?
c. Know the story about the Oracle, how Socrates tests it and the conclusion which he reaches.
d. What are the charges brought against Socrates and how does he respond to them?
e. Know how Socrates views cares of the soul, and cares of the body. Which are more important
according to him?
f. What role does Socrates envision for philosophical activity in the life of the city?
g. What is Socrates’ attitude towards death?
h. What options concerning the afterlife does Socrates consider?
How does Crito try to convince Socrates to escape?
b. How does Socrates react to Crito?
c. How do the laws claim responsibility for Socrates’ life?
d. According to the laws why does Socrates not have the right to run away?
e. According to the laws what would happen if Socrates were to run away?
5. Aristotle
a. How does Aristotle distinguish between humans and other animals?
b. How does Aristotle distinguish between language and the kinds of communication non-human
animals have?

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