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Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, sixth edition
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who work with the system and executive stakeholders who may receive executive reports, or
depend on the success of the system.
External stakeholders may include customers or partner organizations, who also receive
information directly from the system.
At the executive level, external stakeholders may be
investors or regulators.
7.
Describe the open-items list and then explain why it is important.
During fact finding activities, and in fact throughout all the project, some issues can be
answered immediately, but others cannot be answered immediately.
Some questions may not be
answered because more research may need to be done, or other items may need to be decided
first, or the user procedure has not be finalized, etc.
Those items will need to be tracked so that
they are not left out of the solution system.
The open-items list provides that tracking function
by noting the item, assigning a responsible person, and tracking the completion of the open
item.
8.
List and briefly describe the six information gathering techniques.
Information gathering techniques include
Interview users and stakeholders
the most effective for information gathering, but the
most expensive
Distribute questionnaires
good for finding overview or summary information from
many people
Review current system documentation
good for understanding current processes
Observe current business processes
also good for understanding the user's processes
and requirements
Research vendor solutions
good for generating new ideas and learning what already
has been done
Collect user comments
good for finding out about problems with current processes
9.
What is the purpose of an activity diagram?
One purpose of an activity diagram is to document current user workflows.
Activity diagrams
are often
called workflow diagrams.
They can be used to document a user procedure as he/she
interacts with the computer system.
10.
Draw and explain the symbols used on an activity diagram.
See Figure 2-14.


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Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, sixth edition
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Problems and Exercises
1. Provide an example of each of the three types of models that might apply to designing a car, a
house, and an office building.
Car:
Mathematical model might be a set of calculatations having to do with horse-power, torque and
acceleration. Graphical model might be a set of 3 dimensional drawings of the body style.
Textual model might be some written specification of the materials to be used.
House:
Mathematical model might be some calculations to deteremine angle of roof and types of
materials needed.
Graphical would be a set of blueprints.
Descriptive textual model might be a
description of the materials to be used.
Office building:
An office building might have all types of mathematical models of the stresses and earthquake
requirements.
Graphical would be blueprints or even a 3 dimensional physical model.
Descriptive textual model could be of materials or steps in the construction process.
2. One of the toughest problems in investigating system requirements is to make sure they are
complete and comprehensive. How would you ensure that you get all the right information
during an interview session?
Answers should include the following points:
Ensure that all stakeholders are identified and included in the requirements definition
activities.
Review every existing form and report to make sure that all information needs are
understood.
Identify and understand every business activity. Be sure that all business procedures have
been discussed.
Ensure that all exception conditions have been identified and associated processing has been
defined.
Maintain an open-items list and ensure that all items are resolved.
3. One of the problems you will encounter during your investigation is
scope creep
(i.e., user
requests for additional features and functions). Scope creep happens because users sometimes
have many unsolved problems and the system investigation may be the first time anybody has
listened to their needs. How do you keep the system from growing and including new functions
that should not be part of the system?
This problem is really a project management issue. The project manager should establish
guidelines to control this problem.
One preventative method is to be sure that the initial scope definition is adequate and
comprehensive. A partial definition during the scoping activities will exacerbate the problem of


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