TIKANGA EXAM.docx-TIKANGA What is Tikang...
TIKANGA_EXAM.docx-TIKANGA What is Tikanga Maori? 
Showing 21 out of 28
TIKANGA EXAM.docx-TIKANGA What is Tikanga Maori? 
TIKANGA_EXAM.docx-TIKANGA What is Tikanga Maori? 
TIKANGA_EXAM.docx-TIKANGA What is Tikanga Maori? 
Page 21
Tukutuku panels by women (all panels tell stories of that marae), carvings by men (each
carving tells a story about an ancestor etc. – this is a way of how stories are told and passed
on to different generaons)
Women karanga/waiata; men speak
Utu is also evident in a pwhiri. At a pohiri, utu provides the manuhiri should reciprocate the number of speakers
and the number of waiata. The visual representaon of a marae also represents this principle in terms of how the
wharenui is designed – panels are usually by women whereas carvings are by men. Balance is also shown in the
parcipaon of men and women in the powhiri – women karanga and waiata while men speak. Utu can also be
relevant where a koha is given at the pohiri – this giſt should be reciprocated.
Tikanga and the Role of Women
One of the problems related to a pwhiri is the role of women – they do not speak and are required to sit at the back
therefore some people may think it is discriminatory –but need to actually understand Tikanga and the posion of
women in Maori society to be able to truly make an assessment on whether this is discriminatory
People complain about the separate roles for men and women in during the pohiri, including that women are not
allowed to speak (men usually do the speaking even though women usually karanga) and that women must sit at the
back, behind the men.
Posion of women in Maori society prior to Colonisaon
– in the past it did not maer whether you were a woman or man, what
maered was who your parents were and whether you had mana atua and mana tangata. You needed to
have more mana to hold higher roles in society.
You would sll see women having key roles as long as they
had the mana (e.g. women signed the treaty back in 1840).
This is not something that Western society
Retain property rights – women were able to retain property rights in Maori society. Woman in maori
society had their own land and were given their own land – it depended on mana not gender
Compare with
western society where women couldn’t own property, they WERE property.
Warriors – women warriors
Women in the Pohiri Process
In the marae is that
women sit at the back and men sit at the front,
women are not allowed to speak in the whaikorero.
Western society also sees this as a problem with the Powhiri process.
Actually, a reflecon of the
of women – this is the main kanga reason for women sing at the back.
Women have the ability to have babies they must be protected in all situaons, and because
historically you didn’t
know whether someone was coming in peace, the women would stand at the back for protecon.
Chiefs don’t speak either – the chief of marae somemes won’t be able to speak if he doesn’t hold the mana (i.e. not
the oldest). The Maori king at the moment doesn’t always speak.
It is not just based on men and women, it is based on
Balance in roles – while men get to speak, women get to do the Karanga.
So each side has their own role.
Iniate the process – women start the whole pwhiri process when they make the first call. No one can step onto the
marae and be a part of the pwhiri process unl a woman has done the first call
Many Māori women defend the process
– Most maori women wont have a problem with it – the only mes she has
seen it challenged is by western society
But it is important to note that different marae have different kawa for speaking a
nd a minority do allow women to
, and that marae kawa and powhiri kawa are not set in stone. Like all kanga, they can evolve and adapt to
new mes and circumstances.

Ace your assessments! Get Better Grades
Browse thousands of Study Materials & Solutions from your Favorite Schools
Vanderbilt University
Great resource for chem class. Had all the past labs and assignments
Leland P.
Santa Clara University
Introducing Study Plan
Using AI Tools to Help you understand and remember your course concepts better and faster than any other resource.
Find the best videos to learn every concept in that course from Youtube and Tiktok without searching.
Save All Relavent Videos & Materials and access anytime and anywhere
Prepare Smart and Guarantee better grades

Students also viewed documents