TIKANGA EXAM.docx-TIKANGA What is Tikang...
TIKANGA_EXAM.docx-TIKANGA What is Tikanga Maori? 
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TIKANGA EXAM.docx-TIKANGA What is Tikanga Maori? 
TIKANGA_EXAM.docx-TIKANGA What is Tikanga Maori? 
TIKANGA_EXAM.docx-TIKANGA What is Tikanga Maori? 
Page 23
This will depend on whether we look at this through the lense of formal equality of substanve equality
– yes this is unequal treatment. Bullock had to sit at the back and wasn’t allowed to speak
because she was a female
On the surface, the disncon in treatment between men and women on the marae and within a powhiri
may appear discriminatory.
However, there is greater depth to this inial framing of the issue. Ani Mikaere highlights the lasng impact
of colonisaon on this manifestaon of kanga and recognises that it is through the colonial lens that one
contends the disncon ‘discriminatory’ as oppose to ‘an equal difference.’
women and men in the pōwhiri process are different but equal.
Women are to do the
Karanga and men are to do the whaikorero, so there is not discriminaon as people just have different roles. We
should also consider the factors such as
The reason women sit at the back is for protecon
Karanga (womens role) occurs first, and you cannot enter the marae without it
Women are oſten the ones who provide the informaon to the men to speak – so women sll
have a role just less of a performave one
Women can truncate the whaikorero by singing before the speaker has finished if they disprove
Once the formal part is over there are equal speaking roles
Many Māori women defend the process
– Most maori women wont have a problem with it – the
only mes she has seen it challenged is by western society
But should marae and powhiri kawa have to change? Are Maori women complaining? The main jusficaon for
women sing at the back is a reflecon of the importance of women. They sit behind men for spiritual protecon as
child bearers and therefore the source of future generaons. It is also important to note that chiefs don’t speak
either, so perhaps it is a reflecon of women’s mana that they are not allowed to speak. Women’s role in performing
the karanga also reflects their importance as they speak first, iniang the sacred process and women can truncate
speech with waiata. And, aſter the formal proceedings, women and men have equal speaking roles.
ONLY when process looked at from western perspecve is it viewed as discriminatory
Ani Mikaere argues colonisaon is the cause of discriminaon against women. Women would not have understood
their role in the powhiri and on the marae as discriminatory before colonisaon. It is
only when these processes are
looked at through a gendered colonial lens that they are considered discriminatory.
Prior to colonisaon, under kanga, women were equal to men because everything was determined based on
whakapapa. There was no such thing as gender, Maori had the same word for he/she (ia), and therefore women
were not discriminated against for being women. Rather, contrary to women in the western world, women had
property rights, were warriors and signed the Treaty
Public vs Private Domain
You cannot now do a pwhiri in a public area without breaching the HRA, so unless there is an agreement by everyone there,
people may bring disputes.
At the moment Pwhiri are incorporated a lot into state ceremonies – so in order to prevent claims they may have to be made a
‘private process’ again.
In my opinion, it would be a step backwards if Maori were confined to undertaking their cultural proceedings (such as
pōwhiri) only in the private sphere
. Although Tikanga and the maori way of doing things does not have a strong place within the

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