Unit 4 Learning Objectives.docx-Specific...
Unit_4_Learning_Objectives.docx-Specific Unit 4 Goals and Outcomes
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Unit 4 Learning Objectives.docx-Specific Unit 4 Go...
Unit_4_Learning_Objectives.docx-Specific Unit 4 Goals and Outcomes
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Unit_4_Learning_Objectives.docx-Specific Unit 4 Goals and Outcomes
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You must be able to survive until reproductive age
Must be able to find and acquire a mate
Must actually reproduce
different ways to measure fitness in real biological populations.
Look at different numbers of offspring produced
4. Understand how natural selection can cause new alleles (e.g., mutations) to become
removed/common/fixed in populations.
A. List 
the four postulates of natural selection.
Variety of traits
Variation of traits must be heritable
Each generation produces more offspring than can survive and only some of these will
survive long enough to reproduce
More fit individuals will produce more offspring
adaptation, making specific reference to fitness.
Heritable trait that increases the fitness of an organism relative to the organisms lacking
the trait
heritable variation and variation that is not heritable.
Variation that is heritable are ones that are caused in the genes and can be passed on to
Variation that is not heritable may be due to an effect of the environment (like strength)
the causes of heritable variation and the consequences of differential survival and
reproduction for variation in a population.
Causes of heritable variation: started with a mutation and then reproduction
G. When prompted with one of the requirements for natural selection, 
(in your own
words) why natural selection could not operate without it.
Variety of traits: must be present for natural selection to occur because without it natural
selection would have nothing to act upon
These traits must be heritable: if the traits aren’t heritable then populations would not be
evolving and then natural selection has nothing to act upon (trait wise)
More offspring will be produced than can survive and of those that survive some will
produce more offspring than others: doesn’t matter what your phenotype is because
everyone would survive
Individuals with particular heritable traits will reproduce more than those that lack the
traits: if everyone produced the same number of offspring then it wouldn’t matter what
your genotypes were
the roles of reproduction and survival in natural selection.
Natural selection is defined as the differential survival and reproduction of individuals
based on variation in their traits
the relative fitness associate with trait values based on paired (before-and-after)
phenotypic distributions.
phenotype distributions of a quantitative trait in future generations given information
on the current population distribution and the relative fitness associated with trait values.
(in words, arithmetic or pictures) how natural selection can change allele and
genotype frequencies, even though it only acts upon phenotype.
Our genotype makes up our phenotype, so if a certain phenotype is not favored, this

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