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astr_cheat_sheet_2_.docx-Asteroid Belt - Doughnut shaped ring
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Asteroid Belt
- Doughnut shaped ring of asteroids in orbit between mars and Jupiter
- rocky airless worlds that orbit the sun- millions of them- asteroids formed
frost line, comets outside. Leſtover
planetesimals that never accreted into planets
: icy object that orbits In the Kuiper belt like Pluto (Pluto is large member of the Kuiper belt)
Largest Asteroid- large enough for gravity to force it into a sphere shape-
Dwarf Planet
Rings of Saturn
- Saturn possesses the most extensive planetary ring system of any planet in our system
-countless icy parcles, ranging in size from dust grains to large boulders
-Main Rings
- A&B Rings are Densest separated by Cassini Division-C ring, wide faint ring inside B
Dusty Rings
- innermost ring; small dusty parcles
outermost thing ring outside the A-ring
Small icy parcle that when it passes near the sun it heats up and outgases producing a bright light
tail always points
away from the Sun (longest and brightest at perihelion)
pea sized parcle from comet= shoong star
: countless grains of broken rock (cosmic dust) scaers throughout the solar system
enter Earth’s atmosphere & burn
up, producing a brief flash of light in the night sky known as a
(oſten referred to as shoong stars). Occasionally, some
larger chunk of rocky or metallic material survives its passage through the atmosphere and lands on Earth. Any piece that
strikes the ground is known as a
Theories of the moon (early):
1. The fission theory—the Moon was once part of Earth, but somehow separated from it early in
their history 2. The sister theory—the Moon formed together with (but independent of) Earth, as we believe many moons of
the outer planets formed 3. The capture theory—the Moon formed elsewhere in the solar system and was captured by Earth.
the giant impact hypothesis:
Earth being struck obliquely by an object
approximately one-tenth Earth’s mass; this ejected rock vapor then cooled and formed a ring of material orbing Earth. It was
this ring that ulmately condensed into the Moon.
Radioacve rocks:
If you had 1 gram of pure radioacve nuclei with a half-life of 100 years, then aſter 100 years you would
have 1/2 gram; aſter 200 years, 1/4 gram; aſter 300 years, only 1/8 gram; etc.
Earth’s atmosphere:
78% nitrogen (N
), 21% oxygen (O
), and 1% argon (Ar), with traces of water vapor (H
O), carbon dioxide
), and other gases. Variable amounts of dust parcles and water droplets are also found suspended in the air.
Lunar Maria
- relavely smooth, flat plains on the Moon
Lunar Highlands
- Brighter parts of the moon that are easier to be seen and are older than the Marias. Parts are said to be
younger than cratered
gas that absorbs UV solar radiaon about 15-50km above earth’s surface. In stratosphere
Greenhouse Gas-
gas that absorbs and emits radiaon within the thermal infrared range. (CO2, CH4, N2O,
Greenhouse Effect
- Radiaon from greenhouse gases heat up a planet’s atmosphere to warmer than it should (increase GG,
increase Earth’s temp
GG absorb infrared light)
Great Red Spot-
persistent storm on the planet Jupiter, 22° south of the equator, which has lasted for at least 185 years and
possibly as long as 350 years or more
Global warming:
a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere generally aributed to the
greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, and other pollutants.
Surface of the moon:
buried under a fine-grained soil of ny, shaered rock fragments.
surface of region is younger: not as heavily crated
Planet formaon:
accreon: growth of planetesimals from smaller solid parcles that collided and stuck together
Terrestrial Planets:
4 inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
***no substanal atmosphere
Orbits are relavely closely spaced, all have rocky solid surfaces, very few (if any) satellites
- smallest planet, slightly bigger than earth’s moon- covered in craters, closest to Sun, shortest revoluon
- closest in size to earth- carbon dioxide in atm. makes surface hot enough to melt lead (hoer than Earth)
volcanoes and tectonics most imp in shaping present surface
- abundance of liquid water on surface- sustainable for life- unique greenery. Water comes from comets
impacted earth
- water ice in the polar caps, occasional clouds around the large volcanoes, evidence of permafrost under the
Maran surface.
Volcanoes north, Craters south (visible water ice on it)
Mars& Earth= similar mostly in length of
solar day ****
Jovian Planets
- 4 outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune –****blue due to methane
Much more massive than any of Terrestrial planets
Lack solid surfaces
All have rings!!!
Composed mainly of hydrogen, helium, and hydrogen compounds
NOT higher in avg density than are the terrestrial planets
Extensive system of moons.
visible surface of the sun, underneath the opaque layer to which you can start to see visible light
on the photosphere, caused by convecon currents of plasma within the suns convecve zone.

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