In a short essay, diﬀerentiate between the symbolic view and the omnipotent view of management.
The view of managers as omnipotent is consistent with the stereotypical picture of the take
business executive who can overcome any obstacle in carrying out the organization's goals. This
omnipotent view, of course, isn't limited to business organizations. We can also use it to help explain the
high turnover among college and professional sports coaches, who can be considered the "managers" of
their teams. Coaches who lose more games than they win are ﬁred and replaced by new coaches who, it
is hoped, will correct the inadequate performance.
In the omnipotent view, when organizations perform poorly, someone has to be held accountable
regardless of the reasons, and in our society, that "someone" is the manager. Of course, when things go
well, we need someone to praise. So managers also get the credit
even if they had little to do with
achieving positive outcomes.
The symbolic view says that a manager's ability to aﬀect outcomes is inﬂuenced and constrained by
external factors. In this view, it's unreasonable to expect managers to signiﬁcantly aﬀect an
organization's performance. Instead, an organization's results are inﬂuenced by factors managers don't
control such as the economy, customers, governmental policies, competitors' actions, industry conditions,
control over proprietary technology, and decisions made by previous managers.
The "symbolic" view is based on the belief that managers symbolize control and inﬂuence. How? By
creating meaning out of randomness, confusion, and ambiguity or by trying to innovate and adapt.
Because their eﬀect on organizational outcomes is limited, a manager's actions often involve developing
plans, making decisions, and engaging in other managerial activities, which are done for the beneﬁt of
stockholders, customers, employees, and the public. However, the actual part that managers play in
organizational success or failure is minimal.
In a short essay, deﬁne organizational culture and discuss its three primary implications.
It's the shared values, principles, traditions, and ways of doing things
that inﬂuence the way organizational members act. In most organizations, these important shared values
and practices have evolved over time and determine, in large degree, what employees perceive about
their organizational experiences and how they behave in the organization. When doing their work, the
the "way we do things around here"
inﬂuences what employees can do and how
they view, deﬁne, analyze, and resolve problems and issues.
Our deﬁnition of culture implies three things. First, culture is a
. Individuals perceive the
organizational culture on the basis of what they see, hear, or experience within the organization. Second,
even though individuals may have diﬀerent backgrounds or work at diﬀerent organizational levels, they
tend to describe the organization's culture in similar terms. That's the
aspect of culture. Finally,
organizational culture is
. It's concerned with how members perceive the organization, not
with whether they like it. It describes rather than evaluates.
In a short essay, identify and deﬁne the seven dimensions that make up an organization's culture.
Innovation and risk taking
degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative and to take
Attention to detail
degree to which employees are expected to exhibit precision, analysis, and
attention to detail.
degree to which managers focus on results or outcomes rather than on how
these outcomes are achieved.