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People orientation
degree to which management decisions take into account the effects on people in
the organization.
Team orientation
degree to which work is organized around teams rather than individuals.
degree to which employees are aggressive and competitive rather than cooperative.
degree to which organizational decisions and actions emphasize maintaining the status quo.
In a short essay, explain the role of spirituality in Arab organizations, and provide an example.
The significance of spirituality in the workplace takes a special meaning in the Arab world, where the
level of religiosity is higher compared to many Western societies. In addition, the separation between
religion and public life which is dominant in Western societies is less prevalent within the Arab context.
Despite the fact that spirituality should not be made synonymous with bringing religion to the workplace,
the impact of this issue could prove significant in Arab contexts.
Some studies in the Arab context have
suggested that, because religion plays such a big role among workers, it would be advisable to have
organizational policies that are in harmony with the religious belief systems of their employees.
does not mean enforcing a specific value system in the organization as many work contexts include
people from various religions, and many Arab countries, such as Lebanon and Egypt, are religiously
diverse. It does mean that organizations should allow some space for employees to exercise their
spirituality in the way they see fit within the constraints of organizational objectives and controls.
As an illustration, Saudi conglomerate The Savola Group came up with an ethics framework that blends
spiritual principles with organizational practices aimed at achieving good business results. The company
emphasizes that it engages in three classes of external relations with its partners, with third
(customers, suppliers, and the community at large), and with its colleagues. At the same time, the
company argues "we are in constant touch with our own selves." Those relationships are managed
through four types of values (1) Honesty (
) to investors, (2) Conscientiousness (
) to
external parties such as customers and suppliers, (3) Caring Justice (
) to work colleagues and
employees, and (4) Personal Control (
) that reflects "our aspiration is to realize our full
potential and a life of balanced and satisfying achievements".
List the factors that influence the strength of an organization's culture and discuss the impact of a strong
culture on employees.
size of the organization
how long it has been around
how much turnover there has been among employees
intensity with which the culture was originated
high agreement regarding what is important
The more employees accept the organization's key values and the greater their commitment to those
values, the stronger the culture is. Strong cultures have a greater influence on employees than do weak
One study found that employees in organizations with strong cultures were more committed to their
organization than were employees in organizations with weak cultures. The organizations with strong
cultures also used their recruitment efforts and socialization practices to build employee commitment.
And an increasing body of evidence suggests that strong cultures are associated with high organizational
performance. It's easy to understand why a strong culture enhances performance. After all, when values
are clear and widely accepted, employees know what they're supposed to do and what's expected of them
so they can act quickly to take care of problems, thus preventing any potential performance decline.
However, the drawback is that the same strong culture also might prevent employees from trying new
approaches especially during periods of rapid change.

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