soc 275 victimology.docx-Victimology: s...
soc_275__victimology.docx-Victimology: subfield of criminology that specializes
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soc 275 victimology.docx-Victimology: subfield of...
soc_275__victimology.docx-Victimology: subfield of criminology that specializes
soc 275 victimology.docx-Victimolo...
soc_275__victimology.docx-Victimology: subfield of criminology that specializes
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Victimology:
subfield of criminology that specializes in studying the victims of crime
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Victimologists
study the series of events that typically lead to victimization acts of
various kinds in attempts to:
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Arrive at general theories of victimization
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Try to arrive at insights relevant to how victimization can be avoided
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Also examine the way victims are treated in the criminal justice system
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Victimization at workplace and school
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Victimization in the workplace
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Declined from 1993 to 2009
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Victimization in schools
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Isolated events fuel public perceptions
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Schools
are
one of the safest places
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Human trafficking
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Methods used by offenders:
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Confiscating all identifying documents
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Isolating victims
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Constantly accompanying them
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Restricting access to food, clothing, medical care, and sleep
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Requiring long work days
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Otherwise abusing and intimidating victims into becoming completely
physically and psychologically dependent on their captors
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Sources
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Poor third world countries
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Destinations
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Usually (but not always) rich countries
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Sometimes in their own countries
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How trafficked humans are used
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Women and children: prostitutes
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Men: forced labor
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Hate crimes
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For a crime to be classified as hate, the offender must have used hate language
during its commission or left hate symbols afterwards
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Motivations
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Race
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Ethnicity
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Gender
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Sexual orientation
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Four categories of offenders:
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Thrill (most common)
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Defensive


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View themselves as protecting their neighborhoods from intruders
belonging to an alien racial or ethnic group
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Retaliatory
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React to some real or imagined harm to them or their racial/ethnic
group committed by members of the victimized person or property
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Mission
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Fully committed to bigotry
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Cybervictimization
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Identity theft
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Fraudulent use of someone else’s personal information
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Can range from short term use of stolen credit cards to extensive use of
personal information
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Ways in which personal information is assessed
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Phishing
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Involves thieves casting thousands of fraudulent emails into the cyber
pond asking for personal information and waiting for someone to bite
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Victimization theory
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Victim precipitation:
violent victimization may have been precipitated by the
victim by he/she acting in certain provocative ways
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Routine activities/lifestyle theory:
there are certain lifestyles or routine activities
that disproportionately exposes some people to high risk of victimization
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Blaming the victim
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Victim-offender reconciliation programs (VORPS)
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The measurement of crime
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Official crime data
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Government agencies collect the data
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Police based data: uniform crime reports (UCR) and national incident-
based reporting system (NIBRS)
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Victimization data: national crime victimization surveys (NCVS)
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Federal data on white collar crime, corporate crime and internet crime
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Unofficial data
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Nongovernmental data
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STILL REAL DATA AND RELIABLE
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Self report data
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Life course data
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Life history data
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Criminal biographies
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Observation research and participation observation research
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Comparative and historical research
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Positivist criminology:
it is possible to quantify crime as natural science does
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Uniform crime reports


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